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efore I proceed to the meaning of computer networking let me briefly explain what is meant by computer system.

A Computer system is an electronic devices that is capable of accepting data through the input unit, processes data through the processing unit and provide a meaningful result called information through the output unit.
Input unit:- These are refers to set of computer hardware that is used to interact with the computer system. example includes keyboard, mouse, joystick, scanner etc.

Processing unit:- The processing unit is the brain of the computer that carries out the instruction of the computer. example is the central processing unit.

Output device:- This is the unit that delivers the information that have been communicated into the computer into readable form. Examples of the output are but not limited to speaker, monitor, printer, headphone etc.

Computer Networking


Computer networking is an act of combining two or more ectogenous/endogenous computer system in order to share computer resources which can be used to achieve a common goal. It shows how data are being exchange between the several connected computer systems.
Before a computer networking can be setup the following hardware are very important; networking cable, router, distributors, internal network card and external network card.
Networking cable:- This is used to connect two or more computers together. It is a medium through which information are transferred from one computer to another. There are different types of computer network cables, fiber optical cable, coaxial cable and twisted cable.

Network Cables
 Router:- A router is a network device that forwards data packet along networks. It is equipped with hole called port which facilitates the connection of computer or other devices through the use of the network cable.

Distributors:- This is a central body of computer which other devices like scanners, printers are connected in order to manage a network traffic.

Internal network cards:- This is a hardware that is built into the motherboard of a computer system which allow the computer  to have access to a network through the cable. It can be divided into two types that is, Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) and Industry Standard Architecture (ISA).

External network cards:- Unlike the internal, the external network cards does not make use of the network cable instead it makes use of wireless and USB when connecting to a network. An external network adaptor can be more quickly connected to a computer and also it is portable in size.

Types of computer networking
There are so many types of computer networks. Therefore It can be classified based on by their size and as well as their purpose it serves.

1.   Local Area Network (LAN):- This is the use of cables to connect a group of computers together within a local area for the purpose of sharing resources. LAN is mostly used in the offices to connect devices such as computer and printer together.


Advantages of LAN
  • ·         Data can be shared across the network
  • ·         Software can be easily upgraded
  • ·         It provides opportunity to share cost resources like printer
  • ·    Through the use of email, message can be sent to large number of people working on the same terminal.

Disadvantages of LAN
  • ·       It does not covers a wide range as it only limited to a geographical area
  • ·      Cost of buying cables and installation may be too expensive
  • ·     Each users of the network must have username and password, some users are not very good in keeping password secret.

2.    Wide Area Network (WAN):- This is a computer network cover a very wide range. It ensures that computers and users in one location can communicate with other computer users in other locations. WAN connects different smaller networks including LAN and MAN. it also facilitate communication between branches of an organization and also allow employee to work remotely.


Advantages of WAN
  • ·         The network are very fast
  • ·         It shares information over a wide range·         
  •       It allow everyone on the network to make use of the same data

Disadvantages of WAN
  • ·         It is too expensive to operate because the bigger then network the more expensive it is.
  • ·         Security is another vital issue if people have access to information from the computer of             other users.
  • ·         It requires full time supervisors and technicians to maintain the network.
  • ·         It is sometimes affected by the weather

3.    Metropolitan Area Network (MAN):- This is a network that is designed for town or city. It is the one which fall in-between the WAN and LAN because they are larger than LAN in size but smaller than WANs.

                     Advantages of MAN
  • ·         It is characterized with a high speed of data transfer.
  • ·         It can send local mails
  • ·         It connects various locations like campuses, offices, and ministry.
  • ·         It ranges between 10 to 50 miles
  • ·         Information are disseminated widely
  • ·        Another advantage of MANs is the centralized software management. This simply means          that all the software can be loaded on a computer. This eliminates the need to spend time            and energy in installing updates and tracking files.
  • ·         It also facilitate sharing of resources such as printers

                    Disadvantages of MANs
  • ·         It is costly to execute
  • ·         The equipment used has to be installed for the first time.

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